Mrs Anne D. Houstoun of Johnstone Castle (1865-1950)

Figure 1 Arthur Connell Lord Provost of Glasgow 1772 – 1774. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)

On the 17th May 1947 Mrs. Houstoun, through her solicitors, donated to Glasgow Museums two oil paintings by the artist Robert Harvie. The subjects were Lord Provost Arthur Connell of Glasgow (1772-1774) and his wife Magdalen.

Note: to avoid confusion Mrs Houstoun and her birth name Anne Douglas Stirling will always be in bold.

These notes discuss her and her husband’s family background, and hopefully, will show how these paintings came into her possession.

Figure 2 Mrs Magdalene Connell. © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)

Both she and her husband came from long established landed and titled families whose histories can be traced back to, at least, the 16th Century. She descended from the Stirlings* of Drumpellier through her father and also from the Kippendavie branch through her mother, he from the Lairds of Johnstone. She was not the only daughter of the Stirling family who married a Houstoun, but more of that later.

*Spelling of this surname can also be Sterling.

 

The Drumpellier Stirlings.

The Drumpellier Stirlings ancestor appears to have been Robert Stirling (d.1537) of Bankeyr and Lettyr. A further seven generations between 1537 and 1777 inherited these estates[1], this line producing a number of notable individuals including a Lord Provost of Glasgow, John Stirling (1728-1730), who when a Baillie in 1725 was arrested along with other magistrates and the Lord Provost because of the Shawfield riot in Glasgow caused by the imposition of a malt tax[2], and Walter Stirling, his nephew, (1723-1791) who, on his death in 1791, bequeathed his house in Miller Street, his books, and £1,000 to establish Stirling’s Library, the first free public library in Scotland.[3]

John Stirling’s son William was born in Glasgow on the 29th July 1717[4]. He was a Glasgow merchant, founding the cloth printing company of William Stirling and Sons c.1750, being the first to import Indian cotton printed in London, to Glasgow.[5] By the mid 19thCentury it was the largest of its kind in Scotland.[6] He married Mary Buchanan in 1747,[7] the daughter of Andrew Buchanan of Drumpellier.[8] The Drumpellier estate came into the Stirling’s hands when William’s son Andrew bought it from his mother’s brother James Buchanan in 1777 when the American War of Independence ruined the Buchanan business (Buchanan Hastie and Co.) in the American colonies.[9]

Figure 3 Andrew Stirling. © Mrs Stirling-Aird

Andrew was born on the 14th February 1751 in Glasgow.[10] He attended the Grammar School of Glasgow between 1760 and 1764.[11] On the 26th May 1778 he married Anna Stirling, daughter of Sir Walter Stirling of Faskine and Dorothy Willing (born in Philadelphia in 1735[12]), in St. George the Martyr, Queen Square, Camden.[13] According to the record of marriage Andrew was already living in the parish.

Figure 4 Anna Stirling. © Mrs Stirling-Aird

He and Anna had sixteen children, eight boys and eight girls born between 1779 and 1798. His sons included an admiral of the Royal Navy who became the first Governor of Western Australia.[14]

Initially he was partner in the family business William Stirling and Sons, however in 1792 he left the partnership having set up his own commission house, Stirling, Hunter and Co. in London.[15] The venture was successful for a while however in 1808 he ran into financial difficulties and sold Drumpellier back to the Buchanan family.[16] He and his brother John were also shareholders in the company building the Monkland Canal. Initially James Watt had been involved in supervising the necessary work however it was not completed as planned and the company ran out of money.

In 1782 the company was auctioned off and with others the brothers bought it, the Stirlings owning just under 50%. By 1789 Andrew owned over two thirds. From that date, and as a result of his energy and foresight, the canal was extended eastwards to Calderbank and westwards to Port Dundas.[17] He was also a significant user of the canal, exporting coal mined from his land and bringing in dung and lime by return to support his agricultural activity.[18]

Andrew died at Pirbright Lodge in Surrey and was buried in St. Michaels and All Angels Churchyard in Pirbright on the 5th April 1823.[19] Anna also died at Pirbright and was buried on the 11th June 1830.[20]

His fourth son was Charles Stirling whose granddaughter Anne Douglas Stirling, the donor of the paintings, was in due course to marry into the Houstoun family. He was born on the 16th June 1788 at Drumpellier,[21]  and educated at Westminster[22]. He married his cousin Charlotte Dorothea Stirling, the daughter of Admiral Charles Stirling of Woburn in Surrey[23] in 1827[24]. They had seven children the third of whom was General Sir William Stirling. In 1835 Charles bought the estate of Muiravonside in Stirlingshire and developed the agriculture of the estate.[25] In 1826 he was also a partner in the Thistle Bank.[26] He died at Muiravonside House on the 25th August 1867 from heart disease.[27]

Charles’s son William was born on the 4th August 1835.[28] He attended Edinburgh Academy and then the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich.[29] He was appointed to Woolwich in November 1849, age 14 years and three months, passing his probationary examination in December 1850. He progressed through the academy satisfactorily finally being promoted second lieutenant in the Royal Artillery on the 22 June 1853.[30]

Figure 5 Sir William Stirling. Courtesy of Clan Stirling Online. http://old.clanstirling.org/wiki/General_Sir_William_Stirling,_KCB.,_R.A.

He married twice, his first wife being Anne Douglas Sylvester Stirling whom he married in 1864.[31] Her father was Sylvester Douglas Stirling of Glenbervie, and of the Kippendavie Stirling family.[32]

The Kippendavie Stirlings.

The Kippendavie branch of the family was established in 1594 when Archibald Stirling was given the estate of Kippendavie by his father, Sir Archibald Stirling of Keir and Cadder.[33] From this branch of the family came a number of individuals who, along with their Keir cousins were heavily involved in the sugar trade in the West Indies. Patrick and John Stirling, great, great grandsons of Archibald Stirling,[34] in turn, owned a sugar plantation in Jamaica called Content. Patrick had succeeded his father to Kippendavie and lived in Jamaica from about 1753 where he managed the plantation. He died however with no heirs in 1775 and is buried there, his brother John succeeding him to Kippendavie and Content.[35]

John, the father of Sylvester Douglas Stirling,[36] became a senior partner in Stirling Gordon & Co. This company was formed c.1750 by Arthur Connell and James Somervill and was known as Somervill Connell & Co. In 1780, five years after Connell died, it became Somervill Gordon & Co, finally in 1795, Stirling Gordon & Co.[37] It’s clear therefore that there was a business connection between Arthur Connell and the Stirlings of Kippendavie. Later that connection was strengthened through a marriage between the two families.

Between 1835 and 1837 the partners of Stirling Gordon & Co., (including two other sons of John Stirling, Charles and William) were awarded £15,616 as compensation for the loss of their slave labour when slavery was abolished in 1833. The company had four estates or plantations, including Content, with a total of 665 enslaved individuals.[38] At current values the amount awarded would be worth between £1.4m and £57m dependant on the measure used.[39]

Sylvester Douglas Stirling married Anne Craigie Connell in 1830.[40] She was the daughter of David Connell, the son of Arthur and Magdalen Connell, born in 1759[41] . He died in 1819, his death registration stating that he was buried in “Provost Connell’s lair”.[42] This marriage is the means by which the Connell paintings came into the possession of the Stirlings and ultimately Anne Douglas Stirling.

Sir William and Anne Douglas had two children the eldest of whom was Anne Douglas Stirling, born in Edinburgh in 1865[43]. She was in due course the sole executor and beneficiary of her maternal grandmother’s (Anne Craigie Connell) estate when she died in 1899, which I believe brought the Connell paintings into her ownership.[44] Further evidence of the Stirling/Connell familial ties is given by the 1901 census where Anne Douglas Stirling is registered as living (not visiting) with her cousin Arthur K Connell in Brockenhurst, Hampshire.[45]

Sir William’s military career spanned 52 years during which he saw action in the Crimea, India, China and Afghanistan.[46] Following the Afghan campaign in 1879 he was awarded Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB),[47] and in 1893, whilst Governor and Commandant of the Royal Military Academy he was made a Knight Commander of the Order, (KCB).[48]

He became Lieutenant of the Tower of London in 1900,[49] retiring from that position and the army on half pay in 1902.[50] He died on the 11th April 1906 at Ochiltree, Folkstone[51] and is buried in Cheriton Road Cemetery, Folkstone.[52]

The Houstouns of Johnstone.

Anne Douglas Stirling married the sixth Laird of Johnstone George Ludovic Houstoun at St Peter’s, Eaton Square, London on the 10th November 1903.[53] His family ancestry can be traced back to Sir Ludovic Houstoun of that ilk, whose great-great-great grandfather, Sir Peter Houstoun was killed at Flodden. Sir Ludovic had two sons, the eldest and heir being Patrick, who was created a baronet in 1668. His second son was George, who became the first Laird of Johnstone.[54] It is from George that Anne Douglas Stirling’s husband is descended.

The fourth Laird of Johnstone was another George Houstoun who succeeded his father Ludovic who had succeeded his father, also Ludovic.[55] He was born on the 8th September 1744, his mother being Jane Rankine.[56] He succeeded his father at the age of 14 in 1757 and in 1779 he married Mary McDowall,[57] daughter of William McDowall, M.P. of Garthland. They had two sons, Ludovic and William born in 1780 and 1781 respectively.[58]

During his time as Laird George extended Johnstone Castle, was involved in coal mining at Quarrelton, had lime works at Floor Craig and cotton mills on his estate.[59] He was also a founding partner of the Paisley Union Bank in 1788 along with nine others.[60] In 1838 the bank was taken over by the Union Bank of Scotland.[61] He died on the 31st December 1815[62] and was succeeded by his son Ludovic. He left estate valued at £29,750, in economic power terms worth over £155 million today.[63]

Ludovic married Ann Stirling, daughter of John Stirling of Kippendavie and Kippenross in 1809.[64] They had one son, another George, more of which later. He carried on with the businesses his father had established and in the 1861 census, when he was 80 years old it was recorded that he farmed 120 acres, employed 55 miners and 12 labourers in his coal works, 14 miners, 14 labourers, 2 joiners and 2 blacksmiths in the lime works and in his three mills 156 males and 276 females. Clearly a major employer in the area.[65]

He was a J.P. for the Abbey Parish in Johnstone and in 1831 he was appointed Deputy Lieutenant of Renfrewshire.[66]

His wife Ann’s sister Jane Stirling was a pupil of the pianist Frederic Chopin. She had met him around 1827 in Paris, which she visited annually with another sister Kathrine. She became a close friend of the pianist and in 1844 he dedicated his two Nocturnes Opus 55 to her. In 1848 she and Katherine were instrumental in bringing him to London for a series of concerts. He was subsequently invited to Scotland arriving in Edinburgh in early August, eventually staying in Johnstone Castle as a guest of the Houstoun’s for a couple of days in September.[67]

Figure 6. by Richard James Lane. 1830s-1840s NPG D3275 © National Portrait Gallery London. https://www.npg.org.uk/collections

Ludovic and Ann’s son George was born on the 31st July 1810.[68] He attended Eton[69] and in 1828 matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford.[70] He was an officer in the Renfrew Yeomanry Cavalry and in 1831 was commissioned as Captain[71]. He was a Conservative candidate in the Parliamentary elections in 1835 for the County of Renfrew but lost by 68 votes to Sir Michael Shaw Stewart. Sir Michael died early in 1837 and George won the subsequent by election by 170 votes. Later that year there was a general election and he again won the seat. He remained an M.P. until 1841 when he decided not to stand again in the coming election.

George was the heir apparent to the Lairdship however in 1843 he collapsed and died whilst on a shoot at Invercauld in Aberdeenshire.[72] In the transept of Paisley Abbey there is a plain stone tablet, executed by Mossman, over his grave surmounted by a sand glass which is inscribed “George Houstoun, only child of Ludovic Houston and Ann Stirling of Kippendavie – born 31st July 1810, died 14th September 1843.” [73]

In addition to his personal business activity Ludovic, as might be expected, was involved in a number of enterprises at various times. He was a director of the West of Scotland, Fire Insurance Company, a director of the Johnstone Coffee and News Room, within the Black Bull Inn, on the management committee of the Glasgow, Paisley and Ardrossan Canal and a founder member of the Flax Growers Society of Scotland.[74] He died on the 3rd October 1862 at Johnstone Castle.[75]

As he had no surviving offspring and as his brother William had died in 1856[76], his nephew George Ludovic Houstoun became the sixth and last Laird of Johnstone.

William had married Marion Douglas Russell in 1845 at Gargunnock.[77] Her mother was yet another Stirling, Mary Stirling, daughter of John Stirling of Kippendavie and sister of Ludovic’s wife Ann.[78]  William was 64 years old at the time of the marriage which was probably prompted by the death of his nephew George in 1843. With no prospect apparently of his brother Ludovic and his wife having more children he was the only option for the continuation of the title. Sadly it was doomed to fail.

His bride, his niece, was c. 23 and they had four children, George Ludovic, born on the 15th October 1846,[79] William James b. 1848[80] Mary Erskine b. 1850 [81] and Ann Margaret b. 1852.[82] In 1851 the family was living in Cartside House in Johnstone, William described as a cotton spinner employing 532 men and women in his mills and a J.P.[83]

The Last Laird.

George Ludovic Houstoun entered Rugby School on the 31st August 1860. His house was ‘Mayor’ so named after the house master R.B. Mayor. He remained there until 1863,[84] having become Laird the previous October at the age of 16 on the death of his uncle. He matriculated at Queens College, Cambridge in 1866, in due course graduating M.A.[85]

He joined the Renfrewshire Militia also in 1866 as a lieutenant, retaining a military connection until c. 1911 when he joined the Veteran Reserve (Territorial Force Association of Renfrew) having attained the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and being associated with the 4th Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders.[86] He was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of the County of Renfrewshire in 1873, relinquishing the role in 1922.

He also appears to have had significant political connections and may also have been involved with the Colonial Office between 1877 and c.1900. His papers are lodged in the Mitchell Library in Glasgow and contain a wealth of information in respect of his activities in South Africa and his interest in Cyprus where he had an estate near Kyrenia in northern Cyprus.[87]

It seems he spent some time in South Africa being appointed in 1877 Commissioner for the District of Rustenberg in the Transvaal and as a Justice of the Peace. He was present in Somboti, Swaziland, in 1895, witnessing the King’s signature on a letter to Queen Victoria and in 1900 he was in Bulawayo where he received a letter from Arthur Balfour who corresponded with him often, as did other political figures. He also exchanged letters with General Gordon of Khartoum and also with the writer H. Rider Haggard between 1889 and 1891.[88]

The information in the preceding three paragraphs comes from the Houstoun Family of Johnstone papers in the Glasgow City Archives held in the Mitchell Library. The papers, contained in three boxes, are extensive and date from 1630 to 1912, reference TD263.

In the censuses of 1891[89] and 1901[90] he is recorded as staying with his sisters Mary and Ann at Johnstone Castle living on his own means, his brother William James having died in 1866.[91] In may therefore be that his involvement in colonial affairs was sporadic and informal however, in terms of his correspondence, he exchanged information and comments on a number of subjects dealing with the British presence in Africa.

When he married Anne Douglas Stirling in 1903 she brought to the marriage a significant ‘fortune’ having some £13,000 of her own money and the expectation of an inheritance from her mother’s trust fund when her father died, as per her parent’s Marriage Settlement in 1864, and also from him.[92]

They lived for a period at Johnstone Castle until c.1912 when they moved permanently to their estate in Kyrenia, apparently due to Lloyd George’s Land Tax reforms which had begun in 1909.[93]

He had been interested in establishing a Scottish Episcopalian Church in Kyrenia for some time having between 1887 and 1891 began to seek financial support from wealthy friends with the aim of raising £1,000 to do so.[94]  He seems to have had a good response, whether he reached his target however is not clear. No action seems to have been taken until 1912 when St Andrews Episcopalian Church was built, the land being donated by Houstoun and the church being built by Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Eldred McDonald, he being the District Commissioner for Kyrenia.[95]

Figure 7 St Andrews, Kyrenia, Cyprus. http://www.standrewskyrenia.org/

Houstoun was also involved in founding the local hospital and along with a number of other philanthropic activities, trying to improve local farming. In support of this he also established an Agricultural Show.[96]

The Church is still in existence and appears to be very active. Its current vicar is the Reverend Wendy Hough.[97]

Figure 8 Houstoun Cemetery, Kyrenia, Cyprus. http://www.standrewskyrenia.org/

 

He died in Kyrenia in 1931[98], his wife surviving him until 1950,[99] also dying in Kyrenia. They are both buried in the small Houstoun Cemetery there.[100]

Their marriage was childless and as his two sisters Mary Erskine and Ann Margaret died unmarried, Mary in Cannes in 1904[101] and Ann in Edinburgh in 1925[102], the Houstoun line begun by George Houstoun in the mid-1600s ended.

[1] Sterling, Albert Mack. (1909). The Sterling Genealogy. Vol.1 New York: The Grafton Press. pp. 158-162. https://archive.org/stream/sterlinggenealog01ster#page/n1/mode/2up

[2] Smith, John Guthrie and Mitchell, John Oswald. (1878). The Old Country Houses of the Old Glasgow Gentry. 2nd ed. ‘Drumpellier’ .Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/smihou/smihou036.htm

[3] Glasgow Librarian. (1888). Catalogue of Stirling’s and Glasgow Public Library. Glasgow: Robert Maclehose. pp. xiii – xvii. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nyp.33433089893816;view=1up;seq=1

[4] Births (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 27 July 1717. STIRLING, William. 644/1 90 320. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[5] Reid, Robert. (1884) Glasgow Past and Present Vol. 3 Glasgow: David Roberson and Co. p. 374.

[6] National Museum of Scotland. Firms that made Turkey Red. https://www.nms.ac.uk/collections

[7] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 20 September 1747. STIRLING, William and BUCHANAN, Mary. 644/1 250 98 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[8] Sterling, op.cit. pp. 158-162. https://archive.org/stream/sterlinggenealog01ster#page/n1/mode/2up

[9] Smith, John Guthrie and Mitchell, John Oswald. op.cit. ‘Drumpellier’.

[10] Births (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 14 February 1751. STERLING, Andrew. 644/1 121/5. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[11] Reid, op.cit. p.424.

[12] Macfarlane Families & Connected Clans Genealogy. http://www.clanmacfarlanegenealogy.info/genealogy/TNGWebsite/getperson.php?personID=I27371&tree=CC

[13] Marriages. (PR) England. Bloomsbury, London. 26 May 1778. STERLING, Andrew and STIRLING, Ann. Collection: London, England, Church of England Marriages and Banns, 1754-1931. http://ancestry.co.uk

[14] Sterling, op. cit. pp.163-165.

[15] London Gazette (1792) 22 September 1792 Issue 13470, p. 809. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/13470/page/809

[16] Sterling, op.cit. pp. 163-165.

[17] Thomson, George (1945) The Monkland Canal: A sketch of the Early History. Monklands: Monkland Library Services Department

[18] Sinclair, Sir John. (1793) The Statistical Account of Scotland. Vol. 7. Edinburgh: William Creech. pp. 373, 374. http://stataccscot.edina.ac.uk/static/statacc/dist/volume/nsa/

[19] Burials (PR) England. Pirbright, Surrey. 5 April 1823. STIRLING, Andrew. Collection: Surrey, England, Church of England Burials, 1813-1987. Reference Number PI/4/1. http://ancestry.co.uk

[20] Burials (PR) England. Pirbright, Surrey. 11 June 1830. STIRLING, Anna. Collection: London, England, Church of England Deaths and Burials, 1813-2003  http://ancestry.co.uk

[21] Births (OPR) Scotland.  Old Monkland or Coatbridge. 16 June 1788. STIRLING, Charles. 652/ 10 263

http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[22] The Gentleman’s Magazine. (1867) Deaths. The Gentleman’s Magazine. Vol. IV. July – December 1867. p. 542. https://archive.org/stream/gentlemansmagazi223hatt#page/542/mode/2u

[23] Sterling, op. cit. pp. 163

[24] Marriages (PR) England. Pirbright, Surrey. 1 May 1827. STIRLING, Charles and STIRLING, Charlotte Dorothea. Collection: Surrey, England, Church of England Marriages, reference PI/2/2/2. http://ancestry.co.uk

[25] The Gentleman’s Magazine. (1867) Deaths. The Gentleman’s Magazine Vol. IV. July – December 1867. p. 542. https://archive.org/stream/gentlemansmagazi223hatt#page/542/mode/2u

[26] Reid, Robert. (1884) Glasgow Past and Present Vol. 1 Glasgow: David Roberson and Co. p. 484.

[27] Deaths (SR) Scotland. Muiravonside, Stirling. 25 August 1867. STIRLING, Charles. 486/ 40. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[28] Find a Grave. General Sir William Stirling. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/158244525

[29] Sterling, op.cit. p. 163.

[30] The Sandhurst Collection. William Stirling. http://archive.sandhurstcollection.co.uk/view/1565/55974/

[31] Marriages (PR) England. Westminster, London. 2 June 1864 STIRLING, William and STIRLING, Anne Douglas. Collection: England, Select Marriages, 1538–1973. FHL Film number 1042324. http://ancestry.co.uk

[32] Births (OPR) Scotland. Larbert, Stirling. 8 November 1834. STIRLING, Anne Douglas. 485/ 10 531. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[33] Sterling, op.cit. p. 129. https://archive.org/stream/sterlinggenealog01ster#page/128/mode/2up

[34] Sterling, op. cit. pp. 129-132. https://archive.org/stream/sterlinggenealog01ster#page/128/mode/2up

[35] Smith, John Guthrie and Mitchell, John Oswald. (1878) The Old Country Houses of the Glasgow Gentry 2nd ed.  Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/smihou/smihou063.htm

[36] Births (OPR) Scotland. Dunblane, Stirling. 24 February 1803. STIRLING, Silvester, Douglas. 348/ 30 04 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[37] Smith, John Guthrie and Mitchell, John Oswald. (1878) The Old Country Houses of the Glasgow Gentry 2nd ed.  Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/smihou/smihou063.htm

[38]  University College London. Legacies of British Slave Ownership.  https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/15121

[39] Measuring Worth. https://www.measuringworth.com/ppoweruk/

[40] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Abbey. 7 September 1830. STIRLING, Sylvester Douglas and CONNELL, Anne Craigie. 559/ 80 234. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[41] Births (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 24 May 1759. CONNELL, David. 644/1 130 190. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[42] Deaths (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 28 January 1819. CONNELL, David. 644/1 610 221. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[43] Births (SR) Scotland. St George, Edinburgh. 7 December 1865. STIRLING, Anne Douglas. 685/1 1476. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[44] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 1899 STIRLING, Anne Craigie. Stirling Sheriff Court SC67/36/118. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[45] Census. England. 1901. Brockenhurst, Hampshire. Class: RG13; Piece: 1035; Folio: 67; Page: 4. http://ancestry.co.uk

[46] Sterling, op.cit. p. 163. https://archive.org/stream/sterlinggenealog01ster#page/162/mode/2up

[47] London Gazette (1879) Colonel William Stirling. 21 November 1879, issue 24785, p. 6586. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/24785/page/6586

[48] London Gazette (1893) Supplement, Queen’s Birthday Honours. Lieutenant General William Stirling. 3 June 1893, issue 26405. p. 3251. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/26405/page/3251

[49] London Gazette (1900) Lieutenant General Sir William Stirling. 9 January 1900, issue 27152, p. 146. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/27152/page/148

[50] London Gazette (1902) General Sir William Stirling. 8 August 1902, issue 27462, p. 5101. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/27462/page/5101

[51] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 5 June 1906. STIRLING, General Sir William. Supplementary Inventory. Edinburgh Sheriff Court. SC70/1/457. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[52] Find a Grave. General Sir William Stirling. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/158244525

[53] Marriage Announcements (1903) The Scotsman 12 November. HOUSTOUN, George Ludovic and STIRLING, Anne Douglas. p. 10h. Collection: Scotsman Digital Archive 1817 – 1950. https://auth.nls.uk

[54] Burke, John and Burke, John Bernard. (1844). A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England, Ireland and Scotland. 2 ed. London: John Russell Smith. p. 627. https://books.google.co.uk

[55] Ibid.

[56] Births (OPR) Scotland. Ayr. 8 September 1744. HOWSTOUN, George. 578/ 30 247. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[57] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Abbey, Renfrewshire. 29 January 1779. HOUSTOUN, George and MCDOWAL, Maria. 559/ 40 292. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[58] Burke, op.cit.

[59]  Jisc Archives Hub. Papers of the Houstoun family of Johnstone.  https://archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk/

[60] Lloyds Banking Group. Paisley Union Bank.  http://www.lloydsbankinggroup.com/Our-Group/our-heritage/our-history/bank-of-scotland/paisley-union-bank

[61] Cameron, Alan. (1995) Bank of Scotland 1695 – 1995: A very singular institution. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing Company. p.150.

[62] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 1818. HOUSTOUN, George. Wills and Testaments. Paisley Sheriff Court. SC36/48/13http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[63] Measuring Worth (2016). https://www.measuringworth.com/m/calculators/ukcompare/

[64] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. Abbey, Renfrewshire. 22 October 1809. HOUSTOUN, Ludovic and STIRLING, Ann. 559/ 40 551. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[65] Census. 1861. Scotland. Abbey of Paisley, Johnstone. 559/3 11/1. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[66] London Gazette (1831) 15 August 1831 Issue 18849, p. 1878. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/13470/page/809

[67] The Chopin Society UK. Chopin’s visit to Britain 1848.  http://www.chopin-society.org.uk/articles/chopin-britain.htm

[68] Burke, op.cit.

[69] Stapylton, H.E.C. (1884) Eton School Lists 1791 – 1877. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co. p. 117.      https://archive.org/stream/etonschoollistsf00lond#page/116/mode/2up

[70] Oxford University Alumini. 1500 – 1886. Vol. II 1715 – 1886, p. 117. http://ancestry.co.uk

[71] London Gazette (1831) 22 February 1831 Issue 18778, p. 340 https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/18778/page/340

[72] The Gentleman’s Magazine. (1844) Deaths. The Gentleman’s Magazine. Vol. XXI. January – June 1844. p. 203.

https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=inu.30000080772795;view=1up;seq=215

[73] Glasgow Herald. (1848) Glasgow, August 28, Glasgow Herald. 28 August 1848. p. 4f. https://auth.nls.uk

[74] Fowler’s Paisley Commercial Directories 1824 – 1846. https://auth.nls.uk

[75] Deaths (SR) Scotland. Johnstone, Renfrew. 3 October 1862. HOUSTOUN, Ludovic. 559/3 129. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[76] Deaths (SR) Scotland. Johnstone, Renfrew. 6 February 1856. HOUSTOUN, William. 559/ 3 37. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[77] Marriages. (OPR) Scotland. Gargunnock. 8 July 1845. HOUSTOUN, William, and RUSSELL, Marion Douglas. 481/ 20 238 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[78] Sterling, op.cit. pp. 133, 134.

[79] Births (OPR) Scotland. Abbey, Paisley. 15 October 1846. HOUSTOUN, George Ludovic. 559/ 70 36. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[80] Births (OPR) Scotland. Abbey, Paisley. 25 October 1848. HOUSTOUN, William James. 559/ 70 418 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[81] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Abbey, Paisley. 17 August 1850. HOUSTOUN, Mary Erskine. 559/ 70 450. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[82] Births. (OPR) Scotland. Abbey, Paisley. 2 April 1852. HOUSTON, Ann Margaret. 559/ 70 488

[83] Census 1851 Scotland. Johnstone. 559/ 17/3 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[84] Smith, Dr. Jonathan (2018), Archivist at Rugby School: George Ludovic Houstoun at Rugby School. E-mail to George Manzor, 8 March 2018.

[85] (1886) Rugby School Register 1850-1874. Vol. II. Rugby: A.J. Lawrence. p. 80.

https://ukga.org/cgi-bin/browse.cgi?action=ViewRec&DB=15&bookID=142&pagecount=92&submit=Go

[86] Houstoun Family of Johnstone Papers. Glasgow City Archives: Mitchell Library TD263

[87] Ibid

[88] Ibid

[89] Census. 1891. Scotland. Abbey, West Renfrewshire, 559/3 15/ 22. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[90] Census. 1901. Scotland. Johnstone, Paisley. 573/2 17/ 14. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[91] Deaths (SR) Scotland. Lochwinnoch, Renfrewshire. 18 September 1866. HOUSTOUN, William James. 570/ 56. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[92] Houstoun Family of Johnstone Papers. Glasgow City Archives: Mitchell Library TD263.

[93] Death Announcements. (1931). the Scotsman. 5 September. HOUSTOUN, George Ludovic. p. 15b. Collection: Scotsman Digital Archive 1817 – 1950. https://auth.nls.uk

[94] Houstoun Family of Johnstone Papers. Glasgow City Archives: Mitchell Library reference TD263.

[95] Collins, P.C. (1988) A Short History of St. Andrew’s English Church, Kyrenia, Cyprus: 1913 – 1988.

http://www.standrewskyrenia.org/about-us/our-history/

[96] Ibid

[97] St. Andrew’s Church, Kyrenia. Our Chaplain. http://www.standrewskyrenia.org/about-us/our-chaplain/

[98] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 16 March 1932. HOUSTOUN, George Ludovic. National Probate Index (Calendar of Confirmations and Inventories), 1876-1936. http://ancestry.co.uk

[99] Testamentary Records. England and Wales. 21 October 1950. STIRLING, Anne Douglas. National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and Administrations), 1858-1966. http://ancestry.co.uk

[100] St. Andrew’s Church. Kyrenia. The Houstoun Cemetery. http://www.standrewskyrenia.org/the-british-cemeteries-committee/the-houstoun-cemetery/

[101] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 16 June 1904. HOUSTOUN, Mary Erskine. Paisley Sheriff Court Wills. SC58/45/13 and SC58/ 42/64. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[102] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 26 June 1925. HOUSTOUN, Ann Margaret. Dunblane Sheriff Court Wills. SC44/48/2. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

Captain Campbell of Jura (1880-1971)

In June 1945 Captain Campbell of Jura donated two paintings to Kelvingrove. The first by the Scottish portrait painter Colvin Smith was titled ‘Daughters of Colin Campbell of Jura’, the other by Scottish landscape artist Gourlay Steel was called ‘Deer Stalking on Jura’, painted circa 1870.[i]

The genus of Campbell control of Jura began in the 15th century when John McDonald entered into a treaty with Edward IV of England from which he anticipated he would become King of a large part of Scotland. This was not to be and the treaty proved to be undoing of Clan Donald paving the way for a long period of Clan Campbell control of Jura from the 17th century on.[ii] The first Laird was Duncan Campbell of the House of Lochnell. He was born in 1596 and died in 1695, being succeeded by his son John Campbell. There were to be 11 lairds in total from the early 1600s to 1971 when the last one died.[iii] The succession line was a mixture of father to son and brother to brother, particularly in the 19th century when three sons of the sixth Laird Colin Campbell inherited the title, their combined ‘tenure’ totalling fifty three years from 1848 to 1901.

Colin Campbell was born on the 8th November 1772[iv] to Archibald and Sarah Campbell.[v] He married Isabella Hamilton Dundas Dennistoun in 1806 and was described as a merchant in Glasgow.[vi] What his business activities were is not entirely clear however he was involved in the Caribbean sugar trade through Campbell, Rivers & Co.[vii] and is described as a ‘name partner’ in the research report ‘Legacies of British Slave-ownership’ by University College London.[viii] His father-in-law Richard Dennistoun is also named as partner in the company and was also a partner in George and Robert Dennistoun and Co and Dennistoun, Buchanan and Co., both companies heavily involved in the trade. [ix]

Colin’s sisters Anne Penelope and Barbara both married individuals who were shareholders or partners in companies involved in the Caribbean. In 1797 Anne married Robert Dennistoun, son of Richard Dennistoun.[x] He was against the anti-slavery movement and was a founder member of the Glasgow West India Association which was formed to resist that movement.[xi] When slavery was finally abolished his trust, he died in 1815[xii], represented by his widow, his brother in law Colin and others as trustees were awarded compensation of £12,545 14s 9d in 1836 for the freeing of 253 slaves on three plantations he or his company owned in Trinidad.[xiii]

Barbara married Alexander Campbell of Hallyards in 1800[xiv], a cousin of John Campbell senior and one of the original partners of John Campbell, senior & Co.[xv], a major Scottish company in the sugar trade.

There were eleven,[xvi] possibly twelve children of the marriage between Colin and Isabella, five or six sons and six daughters, three of whom are in the portrait by Colvin Smith.

Smith was born 1796 and between 1811 and 1822 studied at Edinburgh University, travelled to London, Antwerp and Paris, where he studied in the Louvre. In 1826 he was in Rome, returning to Edinburgh the following year. The painting must have been completed sometime after 1827 when Smith returned to Scotland and before 1875 when he died.[xvii]

Figure 1 The Daughters of Captain Campbell of Jura  © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)

The painting is of young ladies. Three of the daughters had married by 1838 and it seems unlikely that they are the subjects of the painting. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the painting is of the three unmarried daughters and was done after 1838 and probably before Colin’s death in 1848 at which time all three remained unmarried. I suspect it was probably painted around the early 1840s, say 1841, the age of the three daughters Mary Lyon, Ann Caroline and Barbara being at that time 21, 22 and 17 years respectively.[xviii]

One of these daughters, Mary Lyon Campbell did eventually marry in 1852[xix] Dr. James Loftus Marsden, a homeothapist and practitioner of water therapy to cure or prevent illness. Marsden was a widower with five daughters and was not without controversy. Nor was Mary Lyon. She had become a patient of his in 1851 after a bad fall from a horse in 1849 which apparently left her unable to walk. She was cured and it seems that subsequently they became lovers. This however was not the first time that Mary had an affair.

Her sister Isabella Dundas[xx] had married Lachlan Macquarie in 1836[xxi]. In 1841, age 21 years, whilst living with her sister and her husband on the Isle of Mull Mary was accused of sleeping with her brother-in-law. In January of the following year Lachlan was forced to write to his father-in-law denying the rumours blaming them on his in house medical advisor. However the gossip damaged her reputation within the close knit and interconnected Highland community and probably adversely impacted on her local marriage opportunities.[xxii]

Colin died on the 6th September 1848 having succeeded his elder brother James as laird in 1838.[xxiii] His estate was valued at £49,609,[xxiv] a considerable sum for the time, worth somewhere between £5m and £155m today dependant on the measure used.[xxv] In his Trust Deed and Settlement his trustees included his sons Archibald, an advocate, who as the eldest son succeeded him as Laird, and Richard, and George Scheviz, a partner in Campbell Rivers & Co.[xxvi]

Just over £20,000 of his estate was cash deposited with the Western Bank.[xxvii] This bank was formed in Glasgow in 1832 and in its short history, had several periods of liquidity problems resulting in it eventually collapsing in 1857 through bad management and three major customers defaulting on loans amounting to £1.2 million. At that time it was the second largest bank in Scotland with 1280 shareholders and 101 branches, the larger being the Royal Bank of Scotland.[xxviii]

Archibald Campbell was Laird for only three years, dying unmarried in 1851[xxix], age 43.[xxx] His estate was valued at £53,259, which included £218 cash deposited with the Western Bank, but more crucially 350 shares in the bank valued at £22,529.[xxxi] When the bank failed in 1857 its shareholders not only lost their paid up capital of £2 million but had to provide a further £1.1 million to pay off all its liabilities.[xxxii] That, in due course, became his brother, Richard Dennistoun Campbell’s problem, who succeeded him and was Laird for twenty seven years. [xxxiii]  Whilst the Campbells remained a very wealthy family this event set in motion a train of events which saw them gradually divest themselves of their properties, the last of the Jura estate being sold in 1938 by the eleventh and last Laird of Jura Charles Graham Campbell,[xxxiv] who was the Captain Campbell who donated the paintings to Kelvingrove.

Figure 2 Deer Stalking on Jura © CSG GIC Glasgow Museums Collection.(http://www.artuk.org)

The painting by Gourlay Steel ‘Deer Stalking on Jura’ includes four figures, who are as follows, from left to right, Neil Clark, gamekeeper Angus McKay, the Laird Richard Dennistoun Campbell, and Angus McKay jnr.[xxxv]

In 1875 the Campbells owned twenty three properties on Jura including crofts, a distillery, the school house, shootings, Jura House, woodlands and pauper’s houses.[xxxvi] Richard died in 1878, unmarried,[xxxvii] the title passing to the fourth son James, born in 1818 in Glasgow[xxxviii]. The third born son Colin, died in 1827 aged 11 years.[xxxix]

James married Mary Campbell in 1848 at Treesbanks in Ayrshire.[xl] They had seven children, five daughters, two of whom were born in Germany, and two sons,[xli] the youngest boy dying aged two years in 1857.[xlii]  James and his family lived at various locations between 1851 and 1901 including Edinburgh (with his mother Isabella at West Coates House[xliii]), Ayr,[xliv] Tunbridge Wells[xlv] and Kensington.[xlvi] They also lived in Germany for some time it would appear as two of their daughters Christiana and Jessie were born there in 1859 and 1863 respectively.[xlvii] He lived the life of a landed proprietor with no obvious occupation being recorded in any of the censuses between those years, generally being described as living off ‘interest from money’ or ‘holder of bank stock’.

He died in 1901 at 11 Cornwall Gardens, Kensington. The gross value of his estate was just under £73,000, his wife Mary and brother in law William Hugh Campbell, a colonel in the Royal Scot Fusiliers, being his executors.[xlviii]

Mary died in 1909 in Kensington leaving her estate to her unmarried daughters, of whom there were four, and to her youngest daughter Jessie[xlix] who had married Allan Gordon Cameron in 1885.[l]  They had twin boys, Allan Gordon and James Frederick, in 1892[li] both of whom became officers in the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. Allan won the Military Cross in 1917,[lii] and James was awarded the Military Cross in 1916,[liii] and Bar in 1917,[liv] and finally the Distinguished Service Order in 1918.[lv]

James and Mary’s only living son Colin, who was born in 1851[lvi], succeeded to the title becoming the 10th and penultimate Laird of Jura. Between 1860 and 1862 he was a pupil at Loretto School [lvii] and, later on, attended the Royal Military College at Sandhurst.[lviii] He joined the 91st Highlanders serving in Enniskillen in Northern Ireland which was where he was resident when he married his wife Frances Monteath Sidey in 1876.[lix] She was born in New Zealand[lx] the daughter of Charles Sidey and Allison Isabella Walker who married in New South Wales in 1854.[lxi]

Both Charles and Allison were born in Perth, Scotland in 1823[lxii] and 1834[lxiii] respectively and according to the 1871 Scottish census had at least nine children, six of whom were born in New South Wales, two in New Zealand, and the last in Edinburgh, Charles being described as a retired settler in Australia.[lxiv]  In 1881 he is a ‘retired squatter’[lxv], and by 1901, then resident in London, he is living on his own means.[lxvi]

Colin Campbell did not remain in the army for long as in the 1881 census he was described as a ‘late lieutenant in the 91st Highlanders’[lxvii]. The censuses following 1881 cite no obvious occupation for him except to refer to him as ex-army or, in 1911, when he and his wife were staying at the Pulteney Hotel in Bath, as a ‘Landed Proprietor’.[lxviii]  He did however have other duties. He was a justice of the Peace, Deputy Lord Lieutenant for Argyllshire (1914-1918), head coast watcher for Jura, and from 1890 to 1897 was Government Inspector in Technical Education in Agriculture.[lxix]

He and Frances had four sons and two daughters, born between 1877 and 1894.[lxx] The sons all saw military service in the army. The eldest James Archibald Lochnell Campbell (b.1879)[lxxi] joined the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders in 1900 and served in South Africa, Northern Nigeria and Malta. In 1914 he went to France with the 6th Battalion Gordon Highlanders,[lxxii]  subsequently being killed in battle at Neuve Chapelle in 1915, three days after his 36th birthday.[lxxiii]

The youngest son Ronald Walker Francis Campbell (b.1888)[lxxiv] also died during the Great War. He went to France with the Royal Fusiliers and was severely injured during the Battle of the Somme in 1916.[lxxv]He died of his injuries in a military hospital in Manchester later that year.[lxxvi]

The other sons were more fortunate. Charles Graham Campbell, the second eldest, was initially not accepted for military service as he had only one eye. Late in 1914 he was given a commission in the Royal Field Artillery and posted to East Africa where at some point he was attached to the headquarters of General Smuts. He served in Africa until 1917 at which time he was sent to France, remaining there until the end of the war.[lxxvii] The third son Colin Richard Campbell (1885)[lxxviii] also served in the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, eventually returning home at the end of hostilities.[lxxix]

Noblesse oblige indeed!

Colin Campbell died in Eastbourne in 1933 leaving £51,290[lxxx], having previously made the estate over to his son Charles.[lxxxi]

The eleventh and last Campbell Laird of Jura, Charles Graham Campbell was born in Edinburgh in 1880[lxxxii]. He was educated at St Paul’s School London, having previously attended Colet Court, the preparatory school for St Paul’s. He served an engineering apprenticeship with James Simpson and Co. of Pimlico from 1898 to 1900, then as a pupil with the same company from May 1901 until December 1902 when he was proposed for membership of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers,[lxxxiii] becoming  a graduate member on the 16th January 1903.[lxxxiv]

The following years saw him travelling to Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the USA where he undertook a variety of occupations including gold digging (Alaska), farming, and cattle, sheep and horse raising. He spent eighteen months in the Chilliwick Valley in British Columbia ranching and fruit packing eventually becoming an engineer to the first successful fruit cannery there. He returned to Scotland for a short period before returning to Australia where, in 1912, he bought his own station at Kooringarro, New South Wales where he raised horses.[lxxxv] In 1913 he was a registered voter for the district of Wollondilly, listed as a pastoralist at Kooringgarro[lxxxvi]. When war broke out he returned home and as described before, eventually joined the Royal Field Artillery. He left the army in 1920 and went on his travels again, visiting Australia, Canada, Java and New Zealand, returning home via the South Sea Islands and the Panama Canal.[lxxxvii]

He married Deborah Sylvester Lambarde at Eastbourne in 1930.[lxxxviii] She had been born in 1904 and was the daughter of William Gore Lambarde, Lord of the Manor of Ash and Ridley in Kent, and Florence Lucy Fetherstonhaugh, the family home being Bradbourne Hall in Kent.[lxxxix]

Charles sold the last of the Campbell’s Jura estate in 1938 to William Riley-Smith of Tadcaster, Yorkshire, the final impact of the Western Bank failure in 1857.[xc] He subsequently bought a small estate in Melrose where he and his wife lived. [xci] They continued to travel going to Ceylon in 1955 (Sri Lanka)[xcii] and South Africa in 1958.[xciii]. He died in St Marylebone, London in 1971[xciv].

Of the 10th Laird’s offspring only Charles and his brother James married, James marrying Dorothy Rosalinda Frances Black in April 1914 before he went France.[xcv] A month after James died in France his wife gave birth to a daughter Celia in London.

Charles Graham Campbell was therefore the last Laird of the line from Duncan Campbell in all respects, which is perhaps not surprising. Legend has it that one of his ancestors evicted an old lady from property on Jura who cursed him and his descendants by saying that the last of the Campbells will be one eyed. “He will leave the island and all that he will take with him will be carried to the ship on a cart drawn by a white horse.”

In the event that’s how Charles apparently left the island after he sold it, with his family possessions, presumably including the two paintings he donated to Kelvingrove in 1945, on a cart pulled by a grey horse that was turning white ! [xcvi]

[i] Glasgow Museums. GMRC Object files.

[ii] Isle of Jura History. http://isleofjura.scot/isle-of-jura-history/

[iii] Johnston, G Harvey. (1920) The Heraldry of the Campbells. Vol.1 Edinburgh: W. & A. K. Johnston Ltd. pps. 34,35. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE94700

[iv]  Clan MacFarlane and associated clans genealogy. Kilearnadail Graveyard Jura, Monumental Inscriptions. http://www.clanmacfarlanegenealogy.info/genealogy/TNGWebsite/getperson.php?personID=I9631&tree=CC

[v] Ibid

[vi] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 18 August 1806. CAMPBELL, Colin and DENNISTOUN, Isabella Hamilton. 644/1 280 49. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[vii] Stephen Mullen (2015) ‘The Great Glasgow West India House of John Campbell, senior and Co’. In: Devine T.M. ed. Recovering Scotland’s Slavery Past. p.128.

[viii] University College London: Legacies of British Slave Ownership

https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/firm/view/-641488528

[ix] It should be noted that there was another Colin Campbell, of Colgrain, son of John Campbell, senior, who was involved with these companies. Stephen Mullen (2015) ‘The Great Glasgow West India House of John Campbell, senior and Co’. In: Devine T.M. ed. Recovering Scotland’s Slavery Past. p.124.

[x] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 2 October 1797. DENNISTOUN, Robert and CAMPBELL, Anne Penelope. 644/1 270 239. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xi] University College London: Legacies of British Slave Ownership https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/2146635336

[xii] Testamentary Records Scotland. 27 August 1815. DENNISTOUN, Robert. Glasgow Sheriff Court Wills. SC36/48/10. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xiii] University College London: Legacies of British Slave Ownership https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lbs/person/view/28579

[xiv] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 2 October 1800. CAMPBELL, Alexander and CAMPBELL, Barbara. 644/1 270 300. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xv] Mullen, Stephen (2015) ‘The Great Glasgow West India House of John Campbell, senior and Co’. In: Devine T.M. ed. Recovering Scotland’s Slavery Past. p.128.

[xvi] Births (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. Searches 1806 – 1830. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xvii] Cust, L.H. (2004) ‘Smith, Colvin (1796-1875).’ In: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[xviii] Births (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 19 November 1820. CAMPBELL, Mary Lyon. 644/1 300 138; 7 September 1819. CAMPBELL, Ann Caroline. 644/1 220 257; 8 March 1824. CAMPBELL, Barbara. 644/1 310 371. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xix] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. St Cuthbert’s, Edinburgh. 9 December 1852. MARSDEN, James Loftus and CAMPBELL, Mary Lyon. 685/2 470 592. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xx] Births (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 9 June 1815. CAMPBELL, Isabella Dundas. 644/1 210 227. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xxi] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 18 January 1836 MACQUARIE, Lachlan and CAMPBELL, Isabella Hamilton Dundas. 685/1 650 78. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xxii] Conolly, Pauline (2014) The Water Doctors Daughters. London: Robert Hale. Chapters 7, 8. https://books.google.co.uk/books?isbn=0719814812

[xxiii] Johnston, G Harvey. (1920) The Heraldry of the Campbells. Vol.1 Edinburgh: W. & A. K. Johnston Ltd. pps. 34,35. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE94700

[xxiv] Testamentary Records Scotland. 15 March 1849. CAMPBELL, Colin. Dunoon Sheriff Courts. SC51/32/6. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xxv] Measuring Worth (2016). https://www.measuringworth.com/m/calculators/ukcompare/

[xxvi] Testamentary Records Scotland. 15 March 1849. CAMPBELL, Colin. Dunoon Sheriff Courts. SC51/32/6. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xxvii] Ibid

[xxviii] RBS Heritage Hub. Western Bank of Scotland. http://heritagearchives.rbs.com/companies/list/western-bank-of-scotland.htm

[xxix] Johnston, G Harvey. (1920) The Heraldry of the Campbells. Vol.1 Edinburgh: W. & A. K. Johnston Ltd. p. 35. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE94700

[xxx] Testamentary Records Scotland. 05 April 1852. CAMPBELL, Archibald. Dunoon Sheriff Court. SC51/32/7. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xxxi] Ibid.

[xxxii] RBS Heritage Hub. Western Bank of Scotland. http://heritagearchives.rbs.com/companies/list/western-bank-of-scotland.htm

[xxxiii] Johnston, op. cit.

[xxxiv] Budge, Donald (1960) Jura, An island of Argyll.  Glasgow: John Smith & Son.

[xxxv] Budge. op. cit. frontispiece.

[xxxvi] Valuation Rolls (1875) Scotland. Jura, Argyll. CAMPBELL, Richard Dennistoun. VR008900021. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xxxvii] Deaths (CR) Scotland. Jura, Argyll. 4 November 1878. CAMPBELL, Richard Dennistoun. 539/1 8 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xxxviii] Births (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 25 June 1818. CAMPBELL, James. 644/1 220 71 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xxxix] Campbell of Jura Mausoleum, Argyll. Born 1816, died 1827. CAMPBELL, Colin. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/media/viewer/viewer/319e233a-21c1-4bc9-85e2-43ce315f1e92/33944861/20455075554

[xl] Marriages (OPR) Scotland. Monkton and Prestwick. 9 March 1848. CAMPBELL, James and CAMPBELL, Mary. 539/1 20 127. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xli] Census. 1871. Scotland. Ayr, Ayrshire. 578/ 12/ 13.  http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xlii] Deaths (CR) Scotland. Ayr, Ayrshire. 1857. CAMPBELL, George James. 578/76 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xliii] Census. 1851 Scotland. St. Cuthbert, Edinburgh. 685/2 202/ 11 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xliv] Census. 1871. Scotland. Ayr, Ayrshire. 578/ 12/ 13.  http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xlv] Census. 1881. England. Tunbridge Wells, Kent. ED 13a, 914, 33, p.9. http://ancestry.co.uk

[xlvi] Census. 1891. England. Kensington, London. ED 27, 34, 117, p.25. http://ancestry.co.uk

[xlvii] Census. 1871. Scotland. Ayr, Ayrshire. 578/ 12/ 13.  http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xlviii] Testamentary Records Scotland. 10 February 1901. CAMPBELL, James. Dunoon Sheriff Court Wills. SC51/32/53. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[xlix] Testamentary Records Scotland. 8 January 1909. CAMPBELL, Mary. Dunoon Sheriff Court Wills. SC51/32/62. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[l] Marriages (CR) Scotland. St George, Edinburgh. 20 August 1885. CAMERON, Allan Gordon and CAMPBELL, Mary. 685/1 281. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[li] Births. (CR) Scotland. St George, Edinburgh. 21 August 1892. CAMERON, James Frederick and Allan Gordon. 685/1 1401. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[lii] The Gazette. (1917) Supplement 30188, p.7223. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/30188/supplement/7223

[liii] The Gazette. (1916) Supplement 12894, p, 105.

https://www.thegazette.co.uk/Edinburgh/issue/12894/page/105

[liv] The Gazette. (1917) Supplement 13146, p. 2049. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/Edinburgh/issue/13146/page/2049

[lv] The Gazette. (1918) Supplement 13192, p.231. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/Edinburgh/issue/13192/page/231

[lvi] Births (CR) Scotland. Craignish, Argyll. 30 August 1851. CAMPBELL, Colin. 508/ 20 120. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[lvii] Dunford, June C. (2017) Colin Campbell at Loretto School. E-mail to author confirming Campbell’s attendance at the school. 24 April, 09.49. jdunford@loretto.com

[lviii] Budge, op.cit. p. 61.

[lix] Marriages (CR) Scotland. St George, Edinburgh. 7 June 1876. CAMPBELL, Colin and SIDEY, Frances Monteath. 685/1 144. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[lx] Census 1881. Scotland. Ayr, Ayrshire. 578/ 13/ 9 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[lxi] Marriages. Australia, Marriage Index, 1788-1950. RD: Bowenfels, Vale of Clwydd, New South Wales. 1854 SIDEY, Charles and WALKER, Allison Isabella.  Vol.V  http://www.ancestry.co.uk

[lxii] Births (OPR) Scotland. Perth. 1823 SIDEY, Charles. 387/ 240 331 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[lxiii] Births (OPR) Scotland. Perth. 1834 WALKER, Alison Isabella. 387/ 260 266 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[lxiv] Census 1871. Scotland. Edinburgh, Midlothian. 685/1 77/ 4  http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[lxv] Census 1881. Scotland. Edinburgh, Midlothian. 685/1 91/ 21  http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[lxvi] Census 1901. England. Kensington, London. Class: RG13; Piece: 36; Folio: 54; Page: 54 http://www.ancestry.co.uk

[lxvii] Census 1881. Scotland. Ayr, Ayrshire. 578/ 13/ 9 http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[lxviii] Census 1911. England. Bath, Somerset. Class: RG14; Piece: 14682; Schedule Number: 187a http://www.ancestry.co.uk

[lxix] Dunford, June C. (2017) Colin Campbell at Loretto School. E-mail to author confirming Campbell’s attendance at the school. 24 April, 09.49. jdunford@loretto.com and Sinclair, Emma J (2017) Colin Campbell at Loretto School. E-mail to author confirming Campbell’s attendance at the school.  4 May, 14.22. emma.sinclair@loretto.com.

[lxx] Births (CR) Scotland. Glasgow. Searches 1877 – 1894. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[lxxi] Births (CR) Scotland. 16 March 1879 CAMPBELL, James Archibald Lochnell 685/1 599. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[lxxii] Budge, op.cit. p. 62.

[lxxiii] Deaths (SR) Scotland. Neuve Chapelle, France. 19 March 1915. CAMPBELL, James Archibald Lochnell. 137/ AF 174. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[lxxiv] Births (CR) England. Richmond, Surrey. 14 June 1888. CAMPBELL, Ronald Walker Francis. Church of England Baptisms, 1813-1912. Ref. 2069/1/2. http://www.ancestry.co.uk

[lxxv] Budge, op.cit. p. 62.

[lxxvi] Death Index (CR) England. Manchester, Lancashire. 3rd Qtr. 1916. CAMPBELL, Ronald Walker Francis. Vol. 8d. p. 194. Collection: England & Wales, Civil Registration Death Index, 1916-2007. http://www.ancestry.co.uk

[lxxvii] Budge, op.cit. p. 62.

[lxxviii] Births (CR) Scotland. Edinburgh, Mid Lothian. 26 January 1885. CAMPBELL, Colin Richard. 685/1 244. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[lxxix] Army Medal Office (Great Britain). WW1 Medal Index Card. CAMPBELL, Colin Richard. Collection: British Army Medal Index Cards, 1914-1920. http://search.findmypast.co.uk/record?id=gbm%2fmci%2f5434498

[lxxx] Testamentary Records. Scotland. 21 December 1933. CAMPBELL, Colin. National Probate Index (Calendar of Confirmations and Inventories), 1876-1936. Vol. 1933, p. c17. http://www.ancestry.co.uk

[lxxxi] Budge, op.cit. p. 61.

[lxxxii] Births (CR) Scotland. Edinburgh, Midlothian. 3 June 1880. CAMPBELL, Charles Graham. 685/1 1231. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk

[lxxxiii] Application for Membership of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers. 1 December 1902. CAMPBELL, Charles Graham. Collection: Mechanical Engineering Records, 1847-1930. p. 40 no. 4531. Collection: Mechanical Engineering Records, 1847-1930. p. 40 no. 4531. http://www.ancestry.co.uk

[lxxxiv] Membership of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers. 16 January 1903. CAMPBELL, Charles Graham. Collection: Mechanical Engineering Records 1847-1930, Register of Members. http://www.ancestry.co.uk

[lxxxv] See comment from Peter Strauss

[lxxxvi] Electoral Rolls. (1913) Australia. Wollondilly, New South Wales. CAMPBELL, Charles Graham. Collection: New South Wales State Electoral Roll 1913, vol. 16. http://search.findmypast.co.uk

[lxxxvii] Budge, op.cit. p. 60-62.

[lxxxviii] Marriages (CR) England. Eastbourne, Sussex. 3rd Qtr. 1930 CAMPBELL, Charles Graham and LAMBARDE, Debora Sylvester. Vol. 2b, page 154. Collection: England & Wales, Civil Registration Marriage Index, 1916-2005 http://www.ancestry.co.uk

[lxxxix] Featherstone Genealogy. http://www.featherstone.org/getperson.php?personID=I10037&tree=Southern_England

[xc] Budge, op.cit. p. 188-190.

[xci] Budge, op.cit. p. 61.62

[xcii] Passenger List for S.S. Oranje departing Southampton. CAMPBELL, Charles Graham and CAMPBELL, Debora Sylvester. 7 January 1955. Collection: UK, Outward Passenger Lists, 1890-1960. http://www.ancestry.co.uk

[xciii] [xciii] Passenger List for S.S. Capetown Castle departing Southampton. CAMPBELL, Charles Graham and CAMPBELL, Debora Sylvester. 9 January 1958. Collection: UK, Outward Passenger Lists, 1890-1960. http://www.ancestry.co.uk

[xciv] Deaths Index (CR) England and Wales. St Marylebone, London. 1971. CAMPBELL, Charles Graham. Collection: England & Wales, Civil Registration Death Index, 1916-2007. http://www.ancestry.co.uk

[xcv] Marriages (PR) England and Wales. Kensington and Chelsea. 23 April 1914. CAMPBELL, James Archibald Lochnell and BLACK, Dorothy Rosalinda Frances. Collection: Church of England Marriages and Banns, 1754-1921. http://www.ancestry.co.uk

[xcvi] Budge, op.cit. p. 188-190.