In June 1945 Captain Campbell of Jura donated two paintings to Kelvingrove. The first by the Scottish portrait painter Colvin Smith was titled ‘Daughters of Colin Campbell of Jura’, the other by Scottish landscape artist Gourlay Steel was called ‘Deer Stalking on Jura’, painted circa 1870.[i]
The genus of Campbell control of Jura began in the 15th century when John McDonald entered into a treaty with Edward IV of England from which he anticipated he would become King of a large part of Scotland. This was not to be and the treaty proved to be undoing of Clan Donald paving the way for a long period of Clan Campbell control of Jura from the 17th century on.[ii] The first Laird was Duncan Campbell of the House of Lochnell. He was born in 1596 and died in 1695, being succeeded by his son John Campbell. There were to be 11 lairds in total from the early 1600s to 1971 when the last one died.[iii] The succession line was a mixture of father to son and brother to brother, particularly in the 19th century when three sons of the sixth Laird Colin Campbell inherited the title, their combined ‘tenure’ totalling fifty three years from 1848 to 1901.
Colin Campbell was born on the 8th November 1772[iv] to Archibald and Sarah Campbell.[v] He married Isabella Hamilton Dundas Dennistoun in 1806 and was described as a merchant in Glasgow.[vi] What his business activities were is not entirely clear however he was involved in the Caribbean sugar trade through Campbell, Rivers & Co.[vii] and is described as a ‘name partner’ in the research report ‘Legacies of British Slave-ownership’ by University College London.[viii] His father-in-law Richard Dennistoun is also named as partner in the company and was also a partner in George and Robert Dennistoun and Co and Dennistoun, Buchanan and Co., both companies heavily involved in the trade. [ix]
Colin’s sisters Anne Penelope and Barbara both married individuals who were shareholders or partners in companies involved in the Caribbean. In 1797 Anne married Robert Dennistoun, son of Richard Dennistoun.[x] He was against the anti-slavery movement and was a founder member of the Glasgow West India Association which was formed to resist that movement.[xi] When slavery was finally abolished his trust, he died in 1815[xii], represented by his widow, his brother in law Colin and others as trustees were awarded compensation of £12,545 14s 9d in 1836 for the freeing of 253 slaves on three plantations he or his company owned in Trinidad.[xiii]
Barbara married Alexander Campbell of Hallyards in 1800[xiv], a cousin of John Campbell senior and one of the original partners of John Campbell, senior & Co.[xv], a major Scottish company in the sugar trade.
There were eleven,[xvi] possibly twelve children of the marriage between Colin and Isabella, five or six sons and six daughters, three of whom are in the portrait by Colvin Smith.
Smith was born 1796 and between 1811 and 1822 studied at Edinburgh University, travelled to London, Antwerp and Paris, where he studied in the Louvre. In 1826 he was in Rome, returning to Edinburgh the following year. The painting must have been completed sometime after 1827 when Smith returned to Scotland and before 1875 when he died.[xvii]
The painting is of young ladies. Three of the daughters had married by 1838 and it seems unlikely that they are the subjects of the painting. It is therefore reasonable to assume that the painting is of the three unmarried daughters and was done after 1838 and probably before Colin’s death in 1848 at which time all three remained unmarried. I suspect it was probably painted around the early 1840s, say 1841, the age of the three daughters Mary Lyon, Ann Caroline and Barbara being at that time 21, 22 and 17 years respectively.[xviii]
One of these daughters, Mary Lyon Campbell did eventually marry in 1852[xix] Dr. James Loftus Marsden, a homeothapist and practitioner of water therapy to cure or prevent illness. Marsden was a widower with five daughters and was not without controversy. Nor was Mary Lyon. She had become a patient of his in 1851 after a bad fall from a horse in 1849 which apparently left her unable to walk. She was cured and it seems that subsequently they became lovers. This however was not the first time that Mary had an affair.
Her sister Isabella Dundas[xx] had married Lachlan Macquarie in 1836[xxi]. In 1841, age 21 years, whilst living with her sister and her husband on the Isle of Mull Mary was accused of sleeping with her brother-in-law. In January of the following year Lachlan was forced to write to his father-in-law denying the rumours blaming them on his in house medical advisor. However the gossip damaged her reputation within the close knit and interconnected Highland community and probably adversely impacted on her local marriage opportunities.[xxii]
Colin died on the 6th September 1848 having succeeded his elder brother James as laird in 1838.[xxiii] His estate was valued at £49,609,[xxiv] a considerable sum for the time, worth somewhere between £5m and £155m today dependant on the measure used.[xxv] In his Trust Deed and Settlement his trustees included his sons Archibald, an advocate, who as the eldest son succeeded him as Laird, and Richard, and George Scheviz, a partner in Campbell Rivers & Co.[xxvi]
Just over £20,000 of his estate was cash deposited with the Western Bank.[xxvii] This bank was formed in Glasgow in 1832 and in its short history, had several periods of liquidity problems resulting in it eventually collapsing in 1857 through bad management and three major customers defaulting on loans amounting to £1.2 million. At that time it was the second largest bank in Scotland with 1280 shareholders and 101 branches, the larger being the Royal Bank of Scotland.[xxviii]
Archibald Campbell was Laird for only three years, dying unmarried in 1851[xxix], age 43.[xxx] His estate was valued at £53,259, which included £218 cash deposited with the Western Bank, but more crucially 350 shares in the bank valued at £22,529.[xxxi] When the bank failed in 1857 its shareholders not only lost their paid up capital of £2 million but had to provide a further £1.1 million to pay off all its liabilities.[xxxii] That, in due course, became his brother, Richard Dennistoun Campbell’s problem, who succeeded him and was Laird for twenty seven years. [xxxiii] Whilst the Campbells remained a very wealthy family this event set in motion a train of events which saw them gradually divest themselves of their properties, the last of the Jura estate being sold in 1938 by the eleventh and last Laird of Jura Charles Graham Campbell,[xxxiv] who was the Captain Campbell who donated the paintings to Kelvingrove.
The painting by Gourlay Steel ‘Deer Stalking on Jura’ includes four figures, who are as follows, from left to right, Neil Clark, gamekeeper Angus McKay, the Laird Richard Dennistoun Campbell, and Angus McKay jnr.[xxxv]
In 1875 the Campbells owned twenty three properties on Jura including crofts, a distillery, the school house, shootings, Jura House, woodlands and pauper’s houses.[xxxvi] Richard died in 1878, unmarried,[xxxvii] the title passing to the fourth son James, born in 1818 in Glasgow[xxxviii]. The third born son Colin, died in 1827 aged 11 years.[xxxix]
James married Mary Campbell in 1848 at Treesbanks in Ayrshire.[xl] They had seven children, five daughters, two of whom were born in Germany, and two sons,[xli] the youngest boy dying aged two years in 1857.[xlii] James and his family lived at various locations between 1851 and 1901 including Edinburgh (with his mother Isabella at West Coates House[xliii]), Ayr,[xliv] Tunbridge Wells[xlv] and Kensington.[xlvi] They also lived in Germany for some time it would appear as two of their daughters Christiana and Jessie were born there in 1859 and 1863 respectively.[xlvii] He lived the life of a landed proprietor with no obvious occupation being recorded in any of the censuses between those years, generally being described as living off ‘interest from money’ or ‘holder of bank stock’.
He died in 1901 at 11 Cornwall Gardens, Kensington. The gross value of his estate was just under £73,000, his wife Mary and brother in law William Hugh Campbell, a colonel in the Royal Scot Fusiliers, being his executors.[xlviii]
Mary died in 1909 in Kensington leaving her estate to her unmarried daughters, of whom there were four, and to her youngest daughter Jessie[xlix] who had married Allan Gordon Cameron in 1885.[l] They had twin boys, Allan Gordon and James Frederick, in 1892[li] both of whom became officers in the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. Allan won the Military Cross in 1917,[lii] and James was awarded the Military Cross in 1916,[liii] and Bar in 1917,[liv] and finally the Distinguished Service Order in 1918.[lv]
James and Mary’s only living son Colin, who was born in 1851[lvi], succeeded to the title becoming the 10th and penultimate Laird of Jura. Between 1860 and 1862 he was a pupil at Loretto School [lvii] and, later on, attended the Royal Military College at Sandhurst.[lviii] He joined the 91st Highlanders serving in Enniskillen in Northern Ireland which was where he was resident when he married his wife Frances Monteath Sidey in 1876.[lix] She was born in New Zealand[lx] the daughter of Charles Sidey and Allison Isabella Walker who married in New South Wales in 1854.[lxi]
Both Charles and Allison were born in Perth, Scotland in 1823[lxii] and 1834[lxiii] respectively and according to the 1871 Scottish census had at least nine children, six of whom were born in New South Wales, two in New Zealand, and the last in Edinburgh, Charles being described as a retired settler in Australia.[lxiv] In 1881 he is a ‘retired squatter’[lxv], and by 1901, then resident in London, he is living on his own means.[lxvi]
Colin Campbell did not remain in the army for long as in the 1881 census he was described as a ‘late lieutenant in the 91st Highlanders’[lxvii]. The censuses following 1881 cite no obvious occupation for him except to refer to him as ex-army or, in 1911, when he and his wife were staying at the Pulteney Hotel in Bath, as a ‘Landed Proprietor’.[lxviii] He did however have other duties. He was a justice of the Peace, Deputy Lord Lieutenant for Argyllshire (1914-1918), head coast watcher for Jura, and from 1890 to 1897 was Government Inspector in Technical Education in Agriculture.[lxix]
He and Frances had four sons and two daughters, born between 1877 and 1894.[lxx] The sons all saw military service in the army. The eldest James Archibald Lochnell Campbell (b.1879)[lxxi] joined the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders in 1900 and served in South Africa, Northern Nigeria and Malta. In 1914 he went to France with the 6th Battalion Gordon Highlanders,[lxxii] subsequently being killed in battle at Neuve Chapelle in 1915, three days after his 36th birthday.[lxxiii]
The youngest son Ronald Walker Francis Campbell (b.1888)[lxxiv] also died during the Great War. He went to France with the Royal Fusiliers and was severely injured during the Battle of the Somme in 1916.[lxxv]He died of his injuries in a military hospital in Manchester later that year.[lxxvi]
The other sons were more fortunate. Charles Graham Campbell, the second eldest, was initially not accepted for military service as he had only one eye. Late in 1914 he was given a commission in the Royal Field Artillery and posted to East Africa where at some point he was attached to the headquarters of General Smuts. He served in Africa until 1917 at which time he was sent to France, remaining there until the end of the war.[lxxvii] The third son Colin Richard Campbell (1885)[lxxviii] also served in the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, eventually returning home at the end of hostilities.[lxxix]
Noblesse oblige indeed!
The eleventh and last Campbell Laird of Jura, Charles Graham Campbell was born in Edinburgh in 1880[lxxxii]. He was educated at St Paul’s School London, having previously attended Colet Court, the preparatory school for St Paul’s. He served an engineering apprenticeship with James Simpson and Co. of Pimlico from 1898 to 1900, then as a pupil with the same company from May 1901 until December 1902 when he was proposed for membership of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers,[lxxxiii] becoming a graduate member on the 16th January 1903.[lxxxiv]
The following years saw him travelling to Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the USA where he undertook a variety of occupations including gold digging (Alaska), farming, and cattle, sheep and horse raising. He spent eighteen months in the Chilliwick Valley in British Columbia ranching and fruit packing eventually becoming an engineer to the first successful fruit cannery there. He returned to Scotland for a short period before returning to Australia where, in 1912, he bought his own station at Kooringarro, New South Wales where he raised horses.[lxxxv] In 1913 he was a registered voter for the district of Wollondilly, listed as a pastoralist at Kooringgarro[lxxxvi]. When war broke out he returned home and as described before, eventually joined the Royal Field Artillery. He left the army in 1920 and went on his travels again, visiting Australia, Canada, Java and New Zealand, returning home via the South Sea Islands and the Panama Canal.[lxxxvii]
He married Deborah Sylvester Lambarde at Eastbourne in 1930.[lxxxviii] She had been born in 1904 and was the daughter of William Gore Lambarde, Lord of the Manor of Ash and Ridley in Kent, and Florence Lucy Fetherstonhaugh, the family home being Bradbourne Hall in Kent.[lxxxix]
Charles sold the last of the Campbell’s Jura estate in 1938 to William Riley-Smith of Tadcaster, Yorkshire, the final impact of the Western Bank failure in 1857.[xc] He subsequently bought a small estate in Melrose where he and his wife lived. [xci] They continued to travel going to Ceylon in 1955 (Sri Lanka)[xcii] and South Africa in 1958.[xciii]. He died in St Marylebone, London in 1971[xciv].
Of the 10th Laird’s offspring only Charles and his brother James married, James marrying Dorothy Rosalinda Frances Black in April 1914 before he went France.[xcv] A month after James died in France his wife gave birth to a daughter Celia in London.
Charles Graham Campbell was therefore the last Laird of the line from Duncan Campbell in all respects, which is perhaps not surprising. Legend has it that one of his ancestors evicted an old lady from property on Jura who cursed him and his descendants by saying that the last of the Campbells will be one eyed. “He will leave the island and all that he will take with him will be carried to the ship on a cart drawn by a white horse.”
In the event that’s how Charles apparently left the island after he sold it, with his family possessions, presumably including the two paintings he donated to Kelvingrove in 1945, on a cart pulled by a grey horse that was turning white ! [xcvi]
[i] Glasgow Museums. GMRC Object files.
[iii] Johnston, G Harvey. (1920) The Heraldry of the Campbells. Vol.1 Edinburgh: W. & A. K. Johnston Ltd. pps. 34,35. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE94700
[iv] Clan MacFarlane and associated clans genealogy. Kilearnadail Graveyard Jura, Monumental Inscriptions. http://www.clanmacfarlanegenealogy.info/genealogy/TNGWebsite/getperson.php?personID=I9631&tree=CC
[vii] Stephen Mullen (2015) ‘The Great Glasgow West India House of John Campbell, senior and Co’. In: Devine T.M. ed. Recovering Scotland’s Slavery Past. p.128.
[viii] University College London: Legacies of British Slave Ownership
[ix] It should be noted that there was another Colin Campbell, of Colgrain, son of John Campbell, senior, who was involved with these companies. Stephen Mullen (2015) ‘The Great Glasgow West India House of John Campbell, senior and Co’. In: Devine T.M. ed. Recovering Scotland’s Slavery Past. p.124.
[xv] Mullen, Stephen (2015) ‘The Great Glasgow West India House of John Campbell, senior and Co’. In: Devine T.M. ed. Recovering Scotland’s Slavery Past. p.128.
[xvii] Cust, L.H. (2004) ‘Smith, Colvin (1796-1875).’ In: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[xviii] Births (OPR) Scotland. Glasgow. 19 November 1820. CAMPBELL, Mary Lyon. 644/1 300 138; 7 September 1819. CAMPBELL, Ann Caroline. 644/1 220 257; 8 March 1824. CAMPBELL, Barbara. 644/1 310 371. http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk
[xxiii] Johnston, G Harvey. (1920) The Heraldry of the Campbells. Vol.1 Edinburgh: W. & A. K. Johnston Ltd. pps. 34,35. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE94700
[xxv] Measuring Worth (2016). https://www.measuringworth.com/m/calculators/ukcompare/
[xxviii] RBS Heritage Hub. Western Bank of Scotland. http://heritagearchives.rbs.com/companies/list/western-bank-of-scotland.htm
[xxix] Johnston, G Harvey. (1920) The Heraldry of the Campbells. Vol.1 Edinburgh: W. & A. K. Johnston Ltd. p. 35. https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE94700
[xxxii] RBS Heritage Hub. Western Bank of Scotland. http://heritagearchives.rbs.com/companies/list/western-bank-of-scotland.htm
[xxxiii] Johnston, op. cit.
[xxxiv] Budge, Donald (1960) Jura, An island of Argyll. Glasgow: John Smith & Son.
[xxxv] Budge. op. cit. frontispiece.
[xxxix] Campbell of Jura Mausoleum, Argyll. Born 1816, died 1827. CAMPBELL, Colin. https://www.ancestry.co.uk/media/viewer/viewer/319e233a-21c1-4bc9-85e2-43ce315f1e92/33944861/20455075554
[lii] The Gazette. (1917) Supplement 30188, p.7223. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/30188/supplement/7223
[liii] The Gazette. (1916) Supplement 12894, p, 105.
[liv] The Gazette. (1917) Supplement 13146, p. 2049. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/Edinburgh/issue/13146/page/2049
[lv] The Gazette. (1918) Supplement 13192, p.231. https://www.thegazette.co.uk/Edinburgh/issue/13192/page/231
[lviii] Budge, op.cit. p. 61.
[lxix] Dunford, June C. (2017) Colin Campbell at Loretto School. E-mail to author confirming Campbell’s attendance at the school. 24 April, 09.49. firstname.lastname@example.org and Sinclair, Emma J (2017) Colin Campbell at Loretto School. E-mail to author confirming Campbell’s attendance at the school. 4 May, 14.22. email@example.com.
[lxxii] Budge, op.cit. p. 62.
[lxxv] Budge, op.cit. p. 62.
[lxxvi] Death Index (CR) England. Manchester, Lancashire. 3rd Qtr. 1916. CAMPBELL, Ronald Walker Francis. Vol. 8d. p. 194. Collection: England & Wales, Civil Registration Death Index, 1916-2007. http://www.ancestry.co.uk
[lxxvii] Budge, op.cit. p. 62.
[lxxix] Army Medal Office (Great Britain). WW1 Medal Index Card. CAMPBELL, Colin Richard. Collection: British Army Medal Index Cards, 1914-1920. http://search.findmypast.co.uk/record?id=gbm%2fmci%2f5434498
[lxxxi] Budge, op.cit. p. 61.
[lxxxiii] Application for Membership of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers. 1 December 1902. CAMPBELL, Charles Graham. Collection: Mechanical Engineering Records, 1847-1930. p. 40 no. 4531. Collection: Mechanical Engineering Records, 1847-1930. p. 40 no. 4531. http://www.ancestry.co.uk
[lxxxiv] Membership of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers. 16 January 1903. CAMPBELL, Charles Graham. Collection: Mechanical Engineering Records 1847-1930, Register of Members. http://www.ancestry.co.uk
[lxxxv] See comment from Peter Strauss
[lxxxvii] Budge, op.cit. p. 60-62.
[lxxxviii] Marriages (CR) England. Eastbourne, Sussex. 3rd Qtr. 1930 CAMPBELL, Charles Graham and LAMBARDE, Debora Sylvester. Vol. 2b, page 154. Collection: England & Wales, Civil Registration Marriage Index, 1916-2005 http://www.ancestry.co.uk
[lxxxix] Featherstone Genealogy. http://www.featherstone.org/getperson.php?personID=I10037&tree=Southern_England
[xc] Budge, op.cit. p. 188-190.
[xci] Budge, op.cit. p. 61.62
[xcii] Passenger List for S.S. Oranje departing Southampton. CAMPBELL, Charles Graham and CAMPBELL, Debora Sylvester. 7 January 1955. Collection: UK, Outward Passenger Lists, 1890-1960. http://www.ancestry.co.uk
[xciii] [xciii] Passenger List for S.S. Capetown Castle departing Southampton. CAMPBELL, Charles Graham and CAMPBELL, Debora Sylvester. 9 January 1958. Collection: UK, Outward Passenger Lists, 1890-1960. http://www.ancestry.co.uk
[xcv] Marriages (PR) England and Wales. Kensington and Chelsea. 23 April 1914. CAMPBELL, James Archibald Lochnell and BLACK, Dorothy Rosalinda Frances. Collection: Church of England Marriages and Banns, 1754-1921. http://www.ancestry.co.uk
[xcvi] Budge, op.cit. p. 188-190.